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In practice, however, most of the expressiveness constraints placed on OWL Lite amount to little more than syntactic inconveniences: OWL DL includes all OWL language constructs, but they can be used only under certain restrictions for example, number restrictions may not be placed upon properties which are declared to be transitive.
OWL DL is so named due to its correspondence with description logic , a field of research that has studied the logics that form the formal foundation of OWL.
OWL Full is undecidable, so no reasoning software is able to perform complete reasoning for it. In OWL 2, there are three sublanguages of the language.
The OWL family of languages supports a variety of syntaxes. It is useful to distinguish high level syntaxes aimed at specification from exchange syntaxes more suitable for general use.
This high level syntax is used to specify the OWL ontology structure and semantics. The OWL abstract syntax presents an ontology as a sequence of annotations , axioms and facts.
Annotations carry machine and human oriented meta-data. Information about the classes, properties and individuals that compose the ontology is contained in axioms and facts only.
Each class, property and individual is either anonymous or identified by an URI reference. Facts state data either about an individual or about a pair of individual identifiers that the objects identified are distinct or the same.
Axioms specify the characteristics of classes and properties. Sean Bechhofer, et al. They conclude that the name abstract syntax may be somewhat misleading.
This syntax closely follows the structure of an OWL2 ontology. It is used by OWL2 to specify semantics, mappings to exchange syntaxes and profiles.
Several RDF serialization formats have been devised. Each leads to a syntax for languages in the OWL family through this mapping.
The Manchester Syntax is a compact, human readable syntax with a style close to frame languages. Consider an ontology for tea based on a Tea class.
First, an ontology identifier is needed. This example provides a sense of the syntax. To save space below, preambles and prefix definitions have been skipped.
In the beginning, IS-A was quite simple. Today, however, there are almost as many meanings for this inheritance link as there are knowledge-representation systems.
Early attempts to build large ontologies were plagued by a lack of clear definitions. Members of the OWL family have model theoretic formal semantics, and so have strong logical foundations.
Description logics are a family of logics that are decidable fragments of first-order logic with attractive and well-understood computational properties.
The languages in the OWL family use the open world assumption. Under the open world assumption, if a statement cannot be proven to be true with current knowledge, we cannot draw the conclusion that the statement is false.
A relational database consists of sets of tuples with the same attributes. SQL is a query and management language for relational databases.
Prolog is a logical programming language. Both use the closed world assumption. Languages in the OWL family are capable of creating classes, properties, defining instances and its operations.
A class is a collection of objects. A class may contain individuals, instances of the class. A class may have any number of instances. An instance may belong to none, one or more classes.
A class may be a subclass of another, inheriting characteristics from its parent superclass. All classes are subclasses of owl: All classes are subclassed by owl: No instances are members of owl: Nothing to assert facts about all or no instances.
Class and their members can be defined in OWL either by extension or by intension. An individual can be explicitly assigned a class by a Class assertion , for example we can add a statement Queen elizabeth is a n instance of human , or by a class expression with ClassExpression statements every instance of the human class who has a female value to the sex property is an instance of the woman class.
Let's call human the class of all humans in the world is a subclass of owl: The class of all women say woman in the world is a subclass of human.
Then we have owl: A property is a characteristic of a class - a directed binary relation that specifies some attribute which is true for instances of that class.
Properties sometimes act as data values, or links to other instances. Properties may exhibit logical features, for example, by being transitive, symmetric, inverse and functional.
Properties may also have domains and ranges. For example, modelName String datatype is the property of Manufacturer class.
They are formulated using owl: Object properties are relations between instances of two classes.
For example, ownedBy may be an object type property of the Vehicle class and may have a range which is the class Person.
Languages in the OWL family support various operations on classes such as union, intersection and complement. They also allow class enumeration, cardinality , and disjointness.
Metaclasses are classes of classes. OptiqueVQS -- an ontology-based visual query formulation tool. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Conclusions and Future Work . Owls can have either internal or external ears, both of which are asymmetrical. Asymmetry has not been reported to extend to the middle or internal ear of the owl.
Asymmetrical ear placement on the skull allows the owl to pinpoint the location of its prey. This is especially true for strictly nocturnal species such as the barn owls Tyto or Tengmalm's owl.
This time difference between ears is a matter of about 0. Behind the ear openings are modified, dense feathers, densely packed to form a facial ruff, which creates an anterior-facing, concave wall that cups the sound into the ear structure.
The facial disk also acts to direct sound into the ears, and a downward-facing, sharply triangular beak minimizes sound reflection away from the face.
The shape of the facial disk is adjustable at will to focus sounds more effectively. The prominences above a great horned owl's head are commonly mistaken as its ears.
This is not the case; they are merely feather tufts. The ears are on the sides of the head in the usual location in two different locations as described above.
While the auditory and visual capabilities of the owl allow it to locate and pursue its prey, the talons and beak of the owl do the final work.
The owl kills its prey using these talons to crush the skull and knead the body. The masked owl has some of the proportionally longest talons of any bird of prey; they appear enormous in comparison to the body when fully extended to grasp prey.
The family Tytonidae has inner and central toes of about equal length, while the family Strigidae has an inner toe that is distinctly shorter than the central one.
The beak of the owl is short, curved, and downward-facing, and typically hooked at the tip for gripping and tearing its prey.
Once prey is captured, the scissor motion of the top and lower bill is used to tear the tissue and kill. The sharp lower edge of the upper bill works in coordination with the sharp upper edge of the lower bill to deliver this motion.
Owls tend to mimic the colorations and sometimes even the texture patterns of their surroundings, the common barn owl being an exception. Nyctea scandiaca , or the snowy owl , appears nearly bleach-white in color with a few flecks of black, mimicking their snowy surroundings perfectly.
Likewise, the mottled wood-owl Strix ocellata displays shades of brown, tan, and black, making the owl nearly invisible in the surrounding trees, especially from behind.
Usually, the only tell-tale sign of a perched owl is its vocalizations or its vividly colored eyes. Most owls are nocturnal , actively hunting their prey in darkness.
Several types of owls, however, are crepuscular —active during the twilight hours of dawn and dusk; one example is the pygmy owl Glaucidium.
A few owls are active during the day, also; examples are the burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia and the short-eared owl Asio flammeus. Much of the owls' hunting strategy depends on stealth and surprise.
Owls have at least two adaptations that aid them in achieving stealth. First, the dull coloration of their feathers can render them almost invisible under certain conditions.
Secondly, serrated edges on the leading edge of owls' remiges muffle an owl's wing beats, allowing an owl's flight to be practically silent.
Some fish-eating owls, for which silence has no evolutionary advantage, lack this adaptation. An owl's sharp beak and powerful talons allow it to kill its prey before swallowing it whole if it is not too big.
Scientists studying the diets of owls are helped by their habit of regurgitating the indigestible parts of their prey such as bones, scales, and fur in the form of pellets.
These "owl pellets" are plentiful and easy to interpret, and are often sold by companies to schools for dissection by students as a lesson in biology and ecology.
Owl eggs typically have a white colour and an almost spherical shape, and range in number from a few to a dozen, depending on species and the particular season; for most, three or four is the more common number.
In at least one species, female owls do not mate with the same male for a lifetime. Female burrowing owls commonly travel and find other mates, while the male stays in his territory and mates with other females.
The systematic placement of owls is disputed. For example, the Sibley—Ahlquist taxonomy of birds finds that, based on DNA-DNA hybridization , owls are more closely related to the nightjars and their allies Caprimulgiformes than to the diurnal predators in the order Falconiformes ; consequently, the Caprimulgiformes are placed in the Strigiformes, and the owls in general become a family, the Strigidae.
A recent study indicates that the drastic rearrangement of the genome of the accipitrids may have obscured any close relationship of theirs with groups such as the owls.
Some to extant species of owls are known, subdivided into two families: Typical owls or True owl family Strigidae and 2.
Some entirely extinct families have also been erected based on fossil remains; these differ much from modern owls in being less specialized or specialized in a very different way such as the terrestrial Sophiornithidae.
The Paleocene genera Berruornis and Ogygoptynx show that owls were already present as a distinct lineage some 60—57 million years ago Mya , hence, possibly also some 5 million years earlier, at the extinction of the nonavian dinosaurs.
This makes them one of the oldest known groups of non- Galloanserae landbirds. The supposed " Cretaceous owls" Bradycneme and Heptasteornis are apparently non avialan maniraptors.
During the Paleogene , the Strigiformes radiated into ecological niches now mostly filled by other groups of birds. By the early Neogene , the other lineages had been displaced by other bird orders, leaving only barn-owls and typical owls.
The latter at that time were usually a fairly generic type of probably earless owls similar to today's North American spotted owl or the European tawny owl ; the diversity in size and ecology found in typical owls today developed only subsequently.
Around the Paleogene-Neogene boundary some 25 Mya , barn-owls were the dominant group of owls in southern Europe and adjacent Asia at least; the distribution of fossil and present-day owl lineages indicates that their decline is contemporary with the evolution of the different major lineages of typical owls, which for the most part seems to have taken place in Eurasia.
In the Americas, rather an expansion of immigrant lineages of ancestral typical owls occurred. The supposed fossil herons "Ardea" perplexa Middle Miocene of Sansan, France and "Ardea" lignitum Late Pliocene of Germany were more probably owls; the latter was apparently close to the modern genus Bubo.
Judging from this, the Late Miocene remains from France described as "Ardea" aureliensis should also be restudied. The taxa often united under Strigogyps  were formerly placed in part with the owls, specifically the Sophiornithidae; they appear to be Ameghinornithidae instead.
For fossil species and paleosubspecies of extant taxa , see the genus and species articles. Among the Kikuyu of Kenya , it was believed that owls were harbingers of death.
If one saw an owl or heard its hoot, someone was going to die. In general, owls are viewed as harbingers of bad luck, ill health, or death.
The belief is widespread even today. In Mongolia the owl is regarded as a benign omen. For example, the great warlord Genghis Khan was hiding from enemies in a small coppice.
An owl roosted in the tree above him, which caused his pursuers to think no man could be hidden there. In modern Japan, owls are regarded as lucky and are carried in the form of a talisman or charm.
The modern West generally associates owls with wisdom and vigilance. This link goes back at least as far as Ancient Greece , where Athens , noted for art and scholarship, and Athena , Athens' patron goddess and the goddess of wisdom, had the owl as a symbol.
Thiselton-Dyer in his Folk-lore of Shakespeare says that "from the earliest period it has been considered a bird of ill-omen," and Pliny tells us how, on one occasion, even Rome itself underwent a lustration , because one of them strayed into the Capitol.
He represents it also as a funereal bird, a monster of the night, the very abomination of human kind. Virgil describes its death-howl from the top of the temple by night, a circumstance introduced as a precursor of Dido 's death.
Ovid , too, constantly speaks of this bird's presence as an evil omen; and indeed the same notions respecting it may be found among the writings of most of the ancient poets.
In Hinduism , an owl is the vahana , mount, of the Goddess Lakshmi. People often allude to the reputation of owls as bearers of supernatural danger when they tell misbehaving children, "the owls will get you",  and in most Native American folklore, owls are a symbol of death.
Encouraging natural predators to control rodent population is a natural form of pest control, along with excluding food sources for rodents.
Placing a nest box for owls on a property can help control rodent populations one family of hungry barn owls can consume more than 3, rodents in a nesting season while maintaining the naturally balanced food chain.
Although humans and owls frequently live together in harmony, there have been incidents when owls have attacked humans.
For example, in January , a man from Inverness, Scotland suffered heavy bleeding and went into shock after being attacked by an owl, which was likely a cm tall eagle owl.
Although owls have long been hunted, a news story from Malaysia indicates that the magnitude of owl poaching may be on the rise.
We will be monitoring developments closely. Included in the seizure were dead and plucked barn owls, spotted wood owls, crested serpent eagles, barred eagles, and brown wood owls, as well as 7, live lizards.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 November For other uses, see Owl disambiguation.
List of Strigiformes by population. Scientists explain how bird can rotate its head without cutting off blood supply to brain".
Journal of Avian Biology. Are barn owl feathers waterproof? A guide to the owls of the world. Yale Univ Press, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
Series B, Biological Sciences. A Comparative and Quantitative Study". Version of 11 May In reality, the presumed distant relationship of the accipitrids—namely, the "Accipitriformes" according to Sibley and Ahlquist —with owls and most other bird lineages is most likely due to systematic error.
Accipitrids have undergone drastic chromosome rearrangement and thus appear in DNA-DNA hybridization generally unlike other living birds.
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